CentOS

CentOS 8 New Release Overview

Submitted by Scott Dowdle on Fri, 10/04/2019 - 10:18

As you should recall, CentOS 8 came out on Tuesday, September 24, 2019.  On that date they also announced CentOS 8 Stream.  I've had the opportunity to play with it some, do a few installs, see what's there as well as checking the state of the two most popular third-party repos (EPEL and rpmfusion).

What's New?
... a much newer kernel to start with.  EL7 has 3.10.x and EL8 has 4.18.x.  As you may recall, EL8 is loosely based on Fedora 28.  One good thing about having a much newer kernel is that things like username spaces work better and that trickles down into things like podman and rootless / unprivledged containers actually working... whereas they were basically broken in EL7.  A much newer kernel also brings its share of hardware enablement and a bit of legacy hardware being dropped.  Have an older server with a RAID card?  Better check those release notes to ensure it is still supported.  If not, there's a good chance that the third-party ELrepo  repository has you covered.

One oddity at time-of-writing is that cockpit in EL7.7 is newer (version 195) that what is in EL8 (version 185).  I'm guessing cockpit will receive in an update in EL8 in the not-too-distant future putting it in parity or surpassing what is in EL7.

While yum is still there, it's really a symlink to dnf.  I'm guessing most all Fedora users would agree that dnf is more of a pleasure to use than yum.  Speaking of package managers, EL8 now has streams which obviously came from Fedora where it they are called modules from their Modularity project.  Unfamiliar with modularity?  It is a way of providing multiple versions of packages although you can only have one version installed at a time.  Need something older or need something newer?  You decide.  It allows EL8 to still provide the slower changing personality we've come to expect in Enterprise Linux while at the same time accommodating those who might want / need something newer.

I could go on and on enumerating package updates but I'll leave it to those fine release notes.  One last thing to mention is that KDE Plasma is no longer available from the stock CentOS repositories.

Anything missing?
Yes.  At least this early in the release.  There are only two install .iso files to pick from... one being a half-GB netinstall and the other being a 6.6GB DVD image.  There currently isn't a min CD image.  There currently isn't any LiveDesktop media (they only offer GNOME now) .  I believe some of their cloud KVM, vagrant, Amazon AMI, and container images are still in the works as are all of the updates.  While that's quite a bit of stuff, they are working on it and I expect we'll see those things start to appear shortly.  You have to remember that they basically have two full blown flavors now, regular and Stream.

There isn't a livecd-tools package in the CentOS Extras repository anymore and that kind of bums me out because I really preferred to use livecd-creator (historically provided by the livecd-tools package) over livemedia-creator (provided by the lorax package).  I've been trying my best to build a few personal EL8 remixes with livemedia-creator and I have yet to get it to work.  One has to wonder if that is part of the reason CentOS doesn't have any LiveMedia available yet.

What exactly is CentOS 8 Stream?
The gist of Stream is that it is a rolling release.  Wait, weren't minor version upgrades painless and basically rolling in nature... meaning no clean install required, just use your package manager to upgrade?  Yes.  Is CentOS 8 Stream different?  Yes.  Basically rather than waiting for a new .x+1 point release to come out where you have a large number of packages to update all at once, Stream will offer updates to things more frequently, over time during the normal lifecycle of your release.  I'm not sure if Stream will have point releases or not.

Will there be a CentOS 9 Stream release before RHEL 9 comes out?  Will CentOS 8 Stream be easily upgradable to CentOS 9 Stream in true rolling release fashion?  Maybe... probably... but the 8-Ball says the future is currently unclear.  Since we are so early in the lifecycle, there currently isn't much different between CentOS 8 and CentOS 8 Stream.  Obviously there are a number of use cases for Stream and I'm sure the plan for it will be modified over time as needs dictate.  I do have to wonder why much of their goals couldn't have be accomplished with  package streams.  As previously mentioned, with package streams,  newer stuff can be easily and non-disruptively offered.  I'm guessing they have much broader plans for Stream that haven't been articulated yet... or maybe Stream is going to be more disruptive than they want to be with streams.  Oh, and why did they have to use the same word with 1 letter difference?

Third-Party Repositories
I am fairly confident that a significant number of EL users use Fedora's Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) and while EPEL8 is available, compared to the vast numbers of packages in EPEL7, EPEL8 still has a ways to go.  You should recall that KDE Plasma isn't in CentOS proper anymore, but rest assured that it is in EPEL8 Playground.  I believe one thing currently slowing down the appearance of a lot of stuff is the fact that the EPEL automated build system is still being worked on so that it may produce package streams as some EPEL packagers have mentioned that they would prefer to release their stuff via package streams.  We'll have to wait and see how that pans out.  I'm currently waiting on XFCE and MATE to appear in EPEL8 / EPEL8 Playground.  It should also be noted that RPM Fusion has come out with a repository for EL8 where you can find most of the same stuff they offer Fedora users.

In Conclusion
There is just so much to be excited about in CentOS 8 and the addition of CentOS 8 Stream will surely offer a lot of possibilities we haven't even thought of yet.  One additional thing worth noting is that the Red Hat documentation for RHEL 8 (which CentOS mostly points users to rather than trying to also produce rebranded documentation) has undergone massive changes.  Rather than offering the various guides we have grown accustomed to in the past (like the System Administrators Guide, the Network Guide, the Security Guide, etc), the RHEL 8 documentation is task oriented rather than reference oriented.  For example, they have a Configuring basic system settings guide and a Deploying different types of servers guide.  I'm guessing that there is probably quite a bit over of overlap in the material between the two styles of documentation but the newer one will take a little getting used to.  Those who are completely new to the documentation may prefer the new style.

In any event, I really look forward to using CentOS 8 more and putting it through its paces, seeing how Stream evolves, and enjoying all of the new features a new major release offers.  Thanks for all of the hard work Red Hat and CentOS!

Wherefore Art Thou CentOS 8?

Submitted by Scott Dowdle on Wed, 09/11/2019 - 15:04

UPDATE: CentOS announced on their twitter account that CentOS 8 will be released on Sept. 24th.

IBM's Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (and I'm not sure if Red Hat likes me putting IBM in front of it or not) was released on May 7th, 2019.  I write this on Sept. 11th, 2019 and CentOS 8 still isn't out.  RHEL 7.7 came out on August 6, 2019.  In an effort to be transparent, CentOS does have wiki pages for both Building_8 and Building_7 where they enumerate the various steps they have to go through to get the final product out the door.

Up until early August they were making good progress on CentOS 8.  In fact they had made it to the last step which was titled, "Release work" which had a Started date of "YYYY-MM-DD", an Ended date of "YYYY-MM-DD", and a Status  "NOT STARTED YET".  That was fine for a while and then almost a month had passed with the NOT STARTED YET status.  If you are like me, when they completed every step but the very last, you are thinking that the GA release will be available Real-Soon-Now but after waiting a month, not so much.

It was also obvious that CentOS had started work on the 7.7 update and the status indicators for that have progressed nicely but they still have a ways to go.  Of course one of the hold ups is that they have quite a few arches to support (more than Red Hat themselves) even though their most used platform (x86_64) had its Continuous Release (CR) repository populated and released on August 30th, 2019.  There is still a ways to go on 7.7 but they are generally much quicker with the point update releases.

Users started complaining on the CentOS Devel mailing list harkening back to an earlier time in CentOS' history where they lagged way behind.  There were lots of responses to that thread, many thanking the CentOS developers for all of their hard work, some name calling, and a lot of back and forth with plenty of repetition.  Everyone understands that it takes a while for a major new release to come out and it'll be done when it is good and ready... however... the main complaint was that the development team (which long-time CentOS developer Johnny Hughes Jr. said numbered 3 people) wasn't being transparent enough given the fact that the wiki pages hadn't been updated in some time.  Johnny Hughes finally explained the reason 8 has stalled:

WRT CentOS 8 .. it has taken a back seat to 7.7.1908.  Millions of users already use CentOS Linux 7.  Those people needs updates.

That totally makes sense, doesn't it?  Everyone was happy with that answer... and I updated the Building_8 wiki page to reflect that by changing the status to, "Deferred for 7.7 work" and adding a note that said, "2019-09-10 According to this thread, work was stopped on CentOS 8 after upstream released 7.7. Since so many more users have CentOS 7.x in production, and no one has 8 yet, priority has been given to the 7.7 update... and once it is done, work will continue on 8."

Someone asked JH Jr. if they could use some help and he said that building the packages was easy enough and there wasn't really a way to speed it up... but testing all of the packages, especially all of the various arches, was a way the greater community could help.  That was a poor summary so if interested I encourage you to read the full thread.

While I'm definitely looking forward to the release of CentOS 8, I understand the 7.7 release takes priority and I now better know what to expect.  As has been said so many times, thanks for all of the hard work devs, it is appreciated.

Videos: MontanaLinux CentOS Remix

Submitted by Scott Dowdle on Fri, 06/17/2016 - 16:28

As you may know, I've been remixing Fedora for several years for my own personal use... called MontanaLinux.  I've also been remixing CentOS and Scientific Linux and thought I'd write a little bit about it.

The main reason I created the EL7 remixes is because I have a few older HP Proliant servers at work that have the CCISS Raid Controller and Red Hat dropped support for those in RHEL 7.  Also, I originally included both GNOME and KDE as part of it but have since decided to make it leaner by switching to XFCE 4.12 that is available in EPEL... and of course it includes all of the available updates as of build time.

I make two flavors:

  1. Minimal - Just the basic XFCE with no desktop applications.  This is pretty close to the CentOS minimal install except with X11 and bare bones XFCE.  It weights in under 550MB.
  2. Full - XFCE with Firefox, LibreOffice, GIMP, Inkscape and a handful of useful tools like gParted, nwipe, rdiff-backup, etc.  This weights in under 900MB.

Here are two short screencasts in webm (vp9/opus) format.  The first shows the minimal install and the second one shows the full.  While I'm not trying to provide a primer of the Anaconda installer, I do rush through it both times and show you post install first boot.


MontanaLinux-CentOS-7-Minimal-20160617.webm (8 minutes, 7.1 MB)


MontanaLinux-CentOS-7-Full-20160617.webm (5 minutes, 4.4 MB)

If anyone is interested in downloading my remix or building it themselves just email me and I'll be happy to provide the needed details.  Luckily livecd-tools with livecd-creator makes it not only possible to make your own spin / remix... but fairly easy if you aren't scared of some command line.  Enjoy!

Video: Fedora 23 LXC - Debian SID and CentOS 7 XFCE containers via X2Go

Submitted by Scott Dowdle on Sun, 02/07/2016 - 17:21

Being a LONG-TIME OpenVZ user, I've been avoiding LXC some. Mainly because it wasn't quite done yet. I thought I'd give it a try on Fedora 23 to see how well it works... and the answer is surprisingly... fairly well. I made two screencast (without sound). I just used the lxc-{whatever} tools rather than virt-manager. Both containers just use the default network config (DHCP handed out via DNSMasq provided by libvirtd) which is NAT'ed private addresses... and were automatically configured and just worked. Here's a list of all of the container OS Templates they offer on x86:

centos 6 amd64 default 20160205_02:16 
centos 6 i386 default 20160205_02:16 
centos 7 amd64 default 20160205_02:16 
debian jessie amd64 default 20160204_22:42 
debian jessie i386 default 20160204_22:42 
debian sid amd64 default 20160207_11:58 
debian sid i386 default 20160204_22:42 
debian squeeze amd64 default 20160204_22:42 
debian squeeze i386 default 20160204_22:42 
debian wheezy amd64 default 20160204_22:42 
debian wheezy i386 default 20160204_22:42 
fedora 21 amd64 default 20160205_01:27 
fedora 21 i386 default 20160205_01:27 
fedora 22 amd64 default 20160205_01:27 
fedora 22 i386 default 20160205_01:27 
gentoo current amd64 default 20160205_14:12 
gentoo current i386 default 20160205_14:12 
opensuse 12.3 amd64 default 20160205_00:53 
opensuse 12.3 i386 default 20160205_00:53 
oracle 6.5 amd64 default 20160205_11:40 
oracle 6.5 i386 default 20160205_11:40 
plamo 5.x amd64 default 20160207_11:59 
plamo 5.x i386 default 20160207_13:13 
ubuntu precise amd64 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu precise i386 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu trusty amd64 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu trusty i386 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu trusty ppc64el default 20160201_03:49 
ubuntu vivid amd64 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu vivid i386 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu wily amd64 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu wily i386 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu xenial amd64 default 20160205_03:49 
ubuntu xenial i386 default 20160205_03:49

The first one shows the basics of LXC installation on Fedora 23 (per their wiki page on the subject) as well as creating a Debian SID container, getting it going, installing a lot of software on it including XFCE and most common desktop software... and accessing it via X2Go... and configuring XFCE the way I like it. This one was made on my home laptop and my network is a bit slow so I cut out a few long portions where packages were downloading and installing but everything else is there... yes including quite a bit of waiting for stuff to happen.

lxc-on-fedora-23-debian-sid-GUI-container.webm (25 MB, ~41.5 minutes)

The second video is very similar to the first but it is a remote ssh session with my work machine (where the network is way faster) and shows making a CentOS 7 container, installing XFCE and the same common desktop software, and then connecting to it via X2Go using an ssh proxy, and configuring XFCE how I like it. It was done in a single, un-edited take and includes a bit of waiting as stuff downloads and installs... so you get the complete thing from start to finish.

lxc-on-fedora-23-centos-7-GUI-container.webm (22.7 MB, ~31 minutes)

I recorded the screencasts with vokoscreen at 25 frames-per-second @ slightly larger than 720p resolution... and then converted them to webm (vp9) with ffmpeg @ 200kbit video. They compressed down amazing well. I recommend playback in full-screen as the quality is great. Enjoy!